Metabolism in Greek means “transformation”. Thousands of complex chemical reactions take place in our body every second, supporting normal vital activity. If at least one of the stages — synthesis or decay – fails, then the metabolism is disrupted with the development of a variety of diseases.
Types of carbohydrate metabolism disorders
The main source of energy in the body are carbohydrates — glucose and glycogen, which are also involved in the synthesis of lipids and amino acids. It is carbohydrates that provide brain cells with nutrition and make up for energy losses during stress and physical exertion. Such a strong dependence on the fall and increase in glucose volume is fatal for the body: the resulting metabolic failure, in which carbohydrates are involved, often remains with a person for life.
Metabolic disorders associated with carbohydrates are divided into types:
- a negative change in the process of assimilation of carbohydrates, which results in a carbohydrate deficiency. This is observed with enzyme deficiency, liver malfunction, oxygen starvation, inflammation of the small intestine, etc.;
- violation of glycogen production. Due to an increase or decrease in its production, the body begins to receive energy due to incoming proteins, and this leads to intoxication. The provoking factors include hepatitis, hard physical work, stress;
- negative changes in glycogen metabolism. With congenital enzyme deficiency , it accumulates in the tissues;
- dysfunction of the intermediate carbohydrate metabolism, resulting in acidosis, and the fermentation processes are disrupted;
- an increase in the concentration of glucose in the blood. Hyperglycemia can develop against the background of excessive consumption of sweets, endocrine ailments, emotional outbursts, etc.
Obesity is a metabolic disease associated with carbohydrate metabolism
This is a global epidemic of modernity, covering millions of inhabitants of the planet. It occurs due to a violation of the balance between the energy coming from food and the energy consumed as a result of vital activity. Excess calories in the form of fat settle on tissues and organs, forcing them to work with overload, as a result of which they quickly get tired and wear out. Impaired metabolism causes the development of concomitant diseases — diabetes mellitus, diseases of the heart and blood vessels, joints, spine, etc.
A low-activity lifestyle, poor nutrition and stress only aggravate the situation, causing the progression of this metabolic disease. Predisposing factors include hereditary syndromes, lack of sleep, hypothalamic disorders, taking psychotropic drugs. The treatment of obesity is always based on diet and exercise. If this does not lead to positive results, medication therapy or surgery is prescribed.
Diabetes mellitus is the second most common metabolic disease
This chronic metabolic disorder is based on insufficient formation of its own insulin and an increase in the concentration of glucose in the blood. Such people are constantly thirsty, they experience frequent urge to urinate and increased appetite. Their constant companions are weakness and dizziness. Another feature of this metabolic disease is the long healing of wounds on the skin. It often happens that some minor injury leads to the development of gangrene and loss of limbs.
With a sharp fluctuation in the concentration of glucose in the blood, one of the life-threatening conditions may occur: hyper- or hypoglycemic coma, so patients are forced to constantly monitor their condition and count the amount of carbohydrates in food sources. The choice of medical treatment depends on the type of diabetes mellitus, of which there are at least 5 today. Type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus are incurable metabolic changes, but you can live with them for a long time if you follow a diet and doctor’s recommendations, take sugar-lowering drugs in time.
Gierke’s disease as another manifestation of changes in carbohydrate metabolism
With such a disease, which occurs in one case out of 200,000 newborns, there is a defect in the liver enzyme system. Its cells and cells of the convoluted tubules of the kidneys are filled with glycogen, which leads to an increase in their size and mass. As a result of such a metabolic disorder involving fats and carbohydrates, the level of glucose in the blood decreases, and the concentration of lactic and uric acids increases. The body of such children develops and grows unevenly: the head is often disproportionately large, and the neck and legs are short. Puberty occurs with a delay.
In the morning and with long breaks between meals, hypoglycemia may develop with vomiting, convulsions and a drop in blood pressure. Such a metabolic disease is incurable. You can only support the body by constantly monitoring the level of glucose in the blood. The necessary dose of carbohydrates is poured into infants through a nasogastric tube, and this is done even at night. When the child grows up, he is prescribed raw corn starch. The consequences and complications of this disease are severe: without timely and adequate treatment, babies die in early childhood, and survivors may develop a malignant liver tumor, gout, inflammation of the pancreas, kidney failure.
Prevention of negative metabolic changes involves maintaining a healthy lifestyle, giving up bad habits, balanced and rational nutrition. It is very important to undergo periodic examinations and monitor the concentration of glucose in the blood. An excess of carbohydrates in the body may indicate a feverish state, hyperactivity, increased blood pressure, cardiovascular pathologies. If there are not enough of these substances in the body, then a person feels weakness, tremor of the limbs, he tends to sleep. Subsequently, he becomes depressed and loses body weight.